The biological resources of the mangrove ecosystem which are believed to be highly productive are not only able to provide various valuable forest products, but also maintain estuarine water quality as a habitat for many commercially important species of fish and prawns. For tropical countries, the mangrove is one of the important natural resources for the development sector in order to enhance human welfare through resource exploitation and environmental stability. Therefore, an adequate balance must be sought between the environmental benefits of the marginal mangroves and the productive role of these ecosystems on a sustained management basis (FAO, 1982).

As such, the mangrove forests should be managed to obtain the main objectives of mangrove forest management, i.e. to minimize the destruction or conversion of the mangrove forests, to utilize the mangrove resources on sustained-yield basis, to preserve the unique flora and fauna, to establish a mangrove protection forest and recreational forest, and to avoid or minimize environmental degradation (Soerianegara, unpublished report).

The mangrove resources in Indonesia involve the flora, fauna and land resources which are needed for supporting many kinds of human needs. In Indonesia, the mangroves developed well along the inner facing coast lines of most of the large islands. They are composed of trees (at least 47 species), shrubs (5 species), herbs and grasses (9 species), and parasites (2 species). It must be noted that the mangrove species composition varies from one island to another. In addition to the flora, the mangrove fauna in Indonesia consisted of Gastropoda (50 species), Bivalvia (6 species) and Crustacea (34 species). The marine fauna component is generally more prevalent than the terrestrial and tend to be dominated by Gastropoda and branchyurans. Besides the sedentary fauna, there are a number of species that use the mangrove ecosystems only as temporary habitat, whether it is for spawning, nursery, or shelter, e.g. many species of shrimp have been shown to be mangrove dependent (Macnae, 1974).

[Full text of “Management of Mangrove Ecosystem in Indonesia”]

The biological resources of the mangrove ecosystem which are believed to be highly productive are not only able to provide various valuable forest products, but also maintain estuarine water quality as a habitat for many commercially important species of fish and prawns. For tropical countries, the mangrove is one of the important natural resources for the development sector in order to enhance human welfare through resource exploitation and environmental stability. Therefore, an adequate balance must be sought between the environmental benefits of the marginal mangroves and the productive role of these ecosystems on a sustained management basis (FAO, 1982).

As such, the mangrove forests should be managed to obtain the main objectives of mangrove forest management, i.e. to minimize the destruction or conversion of the mangrove forests, to utilize the mangrove resources on sustained-yield basis, to preserve the unique flora and fauna, to establish a mangrove protection forest and recreational forest, and to avoid or minimize environmental degradation (Soerianegara, unpublished report).

The mangrove resources in Indonesia involve the flora, fauna and land resources which are needed for supporting many kinds of human needs. In Indonesia, the mangroves developed well along the inner facing coast lines of most of the large islands. They are composed of trees (at least 47 species), shrubs (5 species), herbs and grasses (9 species), and parasites (2 species). It must be noted that the mangrove species composition varies from one island to another. In addition to the flora, the mangrove fauna in Indonesia consisted of Gastropoda (50 species), Bivalvia (6 species) and Crustacea (34 species). The marine fauna component is generally more prevalent than the terrestrial and tend to be dominated by Gastropoda and branchyurans. Besides the sedentary fauna, there are a number of species that use the mangrove ecosystems only as temporary habitat, whether it is for spawning, nursery, or shelter, e.g. many species of shrimp have been shown to be mangrove dependent (Macnae, 1974).

[Full text of “Management of Mangrove Ecosystem in Indonesia”]

The biological resources of the mangrove ecosystem which are believed to be highly productive are not only able to provide various valuable forest products, but also maintain estuarine water quality as a habitat for many commercially important species of fish and prawns. For tropical countries, the mangrove is one of the important natural resources for the development sector in order to enhance human welfare through resource exploitation and environmental stability. Therefore, an adequate balance must be sought between the environmental benefits of the marginal mangroves and the productive role of these ecosystems on a sustained management basis (FAO, 1982).

As such, the mangrove forests should be managed to obtain the main objectives of mangrove forest management, i.e. to minimize the destruction or conversion of the mangrove forests, to utilize the mangrove resources on sustained-yield basis, to preserve the unique flora and fauna, to establish a mangrove protection forest and recreational forest, and to avoid or minimize environmental degradation (Soerianegara, unpublished report).

The mangrove resources in Indonesia involve the flora, fauna and land resources which are needed for supporting many kinds of human needs. In Indonesia, the mangroves developed well along the inner facing coast lines of most of the large islands. They are composed of trees (at least 47 species), shrubs (5 species), herbs and grasses (9 species), and parasites (2 species). It must be noted that the mangrove species composition varies from one island to another. In addition to the flora, the mangrove fauna in Indonesia consisted of Gastropoda (50 species), Bivalvia (6 species) and Crustacea (34 species). The marine fauna component is generally more prevalent than the terrestrial and tend to be dominated by Gastropoda and branchyurans. Besides the sedentary fauna, there are a number of species that use the mangrove ecosystems only as temporary habitat, whether it is for spawning, nursery, or shelter, e.g. many species of shrimp have been shown to be mangrove dependent (Macnae, 1974).

[Full text of “Management of Mangrove Ecosystem in Indonesia”]

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